The more Co-E1 that is introduced into brain tissue, the greater the increase (+25%) in measured electrical brain activity. This electrical brain activity increases are in the areas of the brain used for thinking, focusing, mental clarity, memory recall, concentration, cognition, attention, co-ordination, etc. These studies also show that a Co-E1 ( NADH) supplement (i.e., NADH that is given orally) will increases the levels of Co-E1 found in brain tissue.
A summary of the clinical study abstract is listed below. The studies themselves are attached. Warning, the text of this subject is complicated for non-healthcare professionals.